The pope arrived in Lebanon on Friday for a three-day pilgrimage of peace and during that time met with political and religious leaders along with a large group of young people. He thanked the Muslims who participated in the visit for helping to make it a success.
During his visit, the pope delivered several public messages to promote peace in the region noted for its history of unrest and to pray for religious liberty.
Peace will not come to the Middle East until its nations enjoy religious freedom, since only the free practice of faith can inspire the region’s diverse peoples to unite around basic human values, Pope Benedict XVI said on Saturday.
The pope addressed a multifaith gathering of Lebanon’s political, religious and cultural leaders at the presidential palace in Baabda on the second day of a three-day visit to the country.
Also on Saturday, a crowd of at least 350,000 people gathered as Benedict XVI celebrated Mass on the waterfront in Beirut. During the service the pope called on Christians to be “servants of peace and reconciliation in the Middle East.”
Pope Benedict’s travels coincided with a wave of often-violent protests — prompted by an American-made film denigrating Islam — in at least a dozen Muslim countries. On Sept. 14, protesters denounced the papal visit during a demonstration in the Lebanese city of Tripoli; one person died and 25 were wounded in a clash that followed.
In his speech to the nation’s leaders, the pope did not refer specifically to any of the region’s many past or present conflicts, including the current civil war in neighboring Syria, but noted that the “centuries-old mix” of cultures and religions in the Middle East has not always been peaceful.
Peace requires a pluralistic society based on “mutual respect, a desire to know the other, and continuous dialogue,” the pope said, and such dialogue in turn depends on consciousness of sharing fundamental human values, cherished and sustained in common by different religions. Thus, he argued, “religious freedom is the basic right on which many rights depend.”
The pope spoke after meeting privately with Lebanon’s president and prime minister, the president of parliament, and leaders of the country’s four major Muslim communities: Sunni, Shiite, Druze and Alawite. Lebanon’s population is estimated to be about 60 percent Muslim and almost 40 percent Christian, with both groups divided into many smaller communities.
In an apparent reference to the many Middle Eastern countries that restrict the practice or expression of religions other than Islam, the pope said that freedom must go beyond “what nowadays passes for tolerance,” which he said “does not eliminate cases of discrimination” but sometimes “even reinforces them.”
“The freedom to profess and practice one’s religion without danger to life and liberty must be possible to everyone,” he said.
Those remarks echoed portions of a document that Pope Benedict signed the previous night in Harissa and was to present formally Sept. 16 at an outdoor Mass in Beirut. The document is a collection of his reflections on the 2010 special Synod of Bishops dedicated to Christians in the Middle East.
In his talk in Baabda, the pope did not explicitly address the topic of religiously inspired violence, but included a single reference to terrorism and the assertion that “authentic faith does not lead to death.”
He also said that peace requires a shared respect for human life and dignity. Those values are undermined not only by war, he said, but by a range of social ills, including unemployment, corruption, “different forms of trafficking,” and an “economic and financial mindset which would subordinate ‘being’ to ‘having.'”
The pope also warned against ideologies that he said “undermine the foundations of our society” by “questioning, directly or indirectly, or even before the law, the inalienable value of each person and the natural foundation of the family” — an apparent reference to abortion, euthanasia and same-sex marriage.
In response to such threats, Pope Benedict said, political and religious leaders should promote a “culture of peace” through education, which he said would encourage a “conversion of heart” characterized above all by a willingness to forgive.
“Only forgiveness, given and received,” the pope said, “can lay lasting foundations for reconciliation and universal peace.”